Chapter 1

The Congregational Church

By 1798, inhabitants started coming into the town of Madrid. The first settlers came from Malone via Vermont.  Among the first people in the town were Isaac Bartholomew and Asa Freeman. Their relatives still live in the area today.

The town of Madrid was incorporated March 3, 1802.  It was one of the first four towns in St. Lawrence County.  It encompassed some of the Town of Potsdam and the entire town of Waddington.  Originally named Columbia Village, it was also called Robert’s Mills or Seth’s Mills for the grist mills erected in 1803.

In 1806-07, the people in the area began to feel the need for some religious presence, perhaps stemming from a fire which took the lives of two of Uel Gray’s children.  On February 17, 1807, after three months of intense preparation, the first congregational society was formed in Madrid.  Rev. Amos Pettengill, a missionary from Massachusetts, conducted the first services for this society.  Toward the close of the service in the sawmill, Mr. Pettengill went  through the Articles of Calvinistic Faith which he had been teaching during his whole stay, and asked each of the ten persons whom he had prepared to give assent to these Articles. After this, Mr. Pettengill asked them if they were willing to enter into covenant with God and with one another, and to this each of the ten gave an affirmative reply.  Thereupon, the evangelist solemnly pronounced them to be a Church of Christ.[1]  Winsor Goolden, Cyrus Abernethy, Uel Gray, Salmon and Azubah Gray, Asahel and Laura Stone, Clemma Root, Miriam Benton and Dorothy Field became the founding members of this congregation.   These ten were God-fearing Puritans and some of them were pillars of the church for many years.[2]  Amos Pettengill was instrumental in forming many Congregationalist societies in St. Lawrence County.

In 1809 Rev. Chauncy Cook was hired for a six month period and weekly services were established.  At that time there were 25 members.  After Mr. Cook left there was the time to 1811 where no minister was formally engaged.

In May of 1811, Rev. Jonathan Winchester was engaged as the first permanent minister.  His service to the church was interrupted during the War of 1812.  He served until 1819.

Mr. Winchester hosted a revival in 1815 from which one of its younger members was prompted into the ministry and became the church’s third pastor.

In 1818, Mr. Winchester held the funeral for Asa Lord, Abraham Loomis, Joseph Loomis, Ezra Bigelow, Asa Dagett and Leonard Reed, 6 men who were swept over the falls in Madrid.

During his time, he also helped to establish a second church in the village of Hamilton, later known as Waddington.  This church became the second congregational church of Madrid and later was reorganized as the first Presbyterian church in Waddington. Interesting that Windsor Goolding (Goolden) was instrumental in this church also.

In 1820 the society was incorporated as the first congregational church of Madrid.  Salomon Gray, Abisha Packard, Stephen Goodman, Charles McFarlan, William Powell and Abner Parmalee became its first trustees.  The Rev. Royal Philips served as a missionary from 1820-1821 and was then followed by the Rev. Oliver Eastman until 1824.

In 1824, Rev. Joseph Hurlbut became the minister.  He had gone into the ministry due to the influence of Rev. Winchester.  He suggested that the congregation build a church.  The church was made of stone and cost $4000.  This church measured 30 by 40 feet.  William Powell, Thomas Wright and Hiram Safford were principles of the building committee.  Mr. William Thompson was the master builder and stones were brought from all over the neighborhood to be incorporated.  The church took two years to finish and most of the work was donated by the congregation.

Mrs. Cyprian Powell in an interview in 1907 recalled that “Mrs. Dayton was the first caller to welcome her (me) and to invite me to be interested in the ladies work. The church was entirely bare of ornament and the ladies were planning to make a carpet for the two aisles to deaden the sound as well as for ornamentation.  When your grandfather (Cyprian Powell) came up to tea I told him of my call; he said he had two sacks of wool in the store chamber which I could give the ladies as well as not, for all the wool among the ladies had been used up at that season.  This was quite a help to a tawny stripe and our carpet was quite commendable.”[3]

Rev. Hurlbut was influential in helping to organize an association of Congregational churches.  In January of 1825, it was decided to call a conference of the Congregational Churches in St, Lawrence County.  The meeting was set for the second Tuesday and Wednesday in February.   A local consociation of Congregational Churches was formed on February 9, 1825,   and has now become the Black River – St. Lawrence Association.   Rev. Hurlbut along with Caleb Foote were named as delegates from the Madrid church.  On March 25, 1825, the church voted and agreed to join the Consociation.

The first wedding in the church was a double wedding, celebrated on August 17, 1828.  Samuel Barlow and Althea Packard and James Wright and Theodocia Dixon were united in the holy bonds of wedlock, and together started on the voyage of life.[4]  In 1878, Samuel and Althea celebrated their 50th wedding anniversary.

In 1829 an attempt was made to pass a total abstinence vote, but without success; but ten members then signed a pledge, which was the first temperance movement in town.[5] It would remain a large issue until the introduction of the 18th amendment.

Rev. Hurlbut was also an influence for a migration of local residents who went to the Mississippi Valley as missionaries.

A newspaper article in 1901 characterized the justice system in simple, but quite descriptive words-“The hardships of pioneer life spawned independence of character, and it is not strange that all did not think alike, and so when differences arose this Apostolic church, following the example and precepts of the, early church, told their grievances to the church if they concerned a member. The records bear evidence of the patience of the membership giving time to charges from the most trivial to the most serious. It sounds strange to read of the trial of a brother on the charge that he spent too much time and money running back and forth to Montreal which he ought to use for the support of his family, and we smile when we read the complaint made against a brother, that “he can sing but will not,” and then read that the church solemnly, brought the brother to brook. But in serious cases and with conviction, the offending brother was required to make a public confession on the Sabbath day before the church, and the humiliation of it was most salutary.  The church was severe on backbiting and slander.[6]

Rev. James Taylor was the next minister and served from 1830 to 1839.  He died in Madrid in 1839 at the age of 38.  He was known for his integrity and great knowledge. He labored at both Madrid and Waddington. He suffered from Consumption.  As related by Sylvester Wright, “During his last sickness the church members made a bee and got him a large pile of sled length wood.  The boys then got together to chop it up.  I was one of the boys.” [7]

In 1840 a parsonage was built for the pastor, Rev S.M. Wood. Deacon Ivers Fisk was the primary builder.  Mr. Wood boarded with Deacon Hiram Packard about two years before the parsonage was built.[8]  It was located much further down the street than the present building.

In 1850, Rev. Benjamin Parsons became the pastor.  It was during his tenure that the steeple received a bell in1853.  Also in 1853, the vestry was built for the purpose of social gatherings of the society.  It was used for gatherings until the new church was built and no longer needed.

Rufus Pratt was the minister during the Civil War.  During this time the newspapers were full of recruiting ads for the war.  Other papers kept the public informed of troop movements and of course, casualties. During the war Dwight Packard was married to Lucia Parmalee.  Mr. Packard had been in the regimental band and had mustered out for a time because of illness. He later re-enlisted in 1863 as first class musician in Gen. Slough’s Brigade Band in Alexandria, serving until the close of the war.[9]

Mrs. Packard had joined her husband in Washington and was among the mourners who viewed President Lincoln’s body as it lay in state.  Mr. Packard played his part when General Slough’s band rendered music at the funeral.[10] 

In a letter from former pastor Rev. J. H. Kopf  it states that “My heart often yearns for the opportunity to visit the scene of my early labors and to grasp the hands of children and grandchildren of the saints of God who colabored with me for the five years (1874-79) I spent in good old Madrid. I recall the Fisks, Hallocks, Halls, Barlows—never forgetting the Footes, Sweets, Douglasses and the multitude of other souls who so kindly and heartily helped me in my spiritual life.”[11] 

On April 13, 1889, at the monthly meeting of the church, a committee was appointed to ascertain the cost for repairs for the church, wooden shed and parsonage.  In May it was decided to continue with the project and subscribe the amount from the congregation.  It was also decided that a fence around the church be removed. For the months of July, August and September, the congregation met in the Town Hall for services. Repairs were completed in late September in the amount of $750.00.   New pews were installed, having been made by William McDowell of Waddington. New windows and a new furnace were also installed.

Just as it was about to reopen, the church burned to the ground.  On Thursday, September 26, 1889, just before midnight, a fire started in the Baptist Church basement across from the Congregational church.  It spread to four houses down the block.  According to the Ogdensburg Advance for October 3, 1889 the homes of Thomas Fisher, Wesley Buffum, Dr. Reynolds and Patrick Harvey were all destroyed.  Due to the wind direction, the embers from these fires caught the steeple of the Congregation church ablaze.  Even though the church was built of stone, the draft down the wooden steeple burned out the interior of the church.  According to Ira L.C. Lockwood who recorded the incident in the church record, “Through the heroic efforts of friends the new furnace, windows and seats were saved.”[12]  As the church building was not insured, on September 27, the congregation met in the vestry and decided to rebuild the church immediately at this same site.

Under the leadership of Rev. Fred Hatch, the church immediately began to mount fund raising tasks, “The young people’s society have a social at Martin Cogswell’s, about a mile from the village next Thursday evening.  He kindly offers to convey any wishing to go, and give them all the pop corn they can eat.”  And “the Ladies’ Aid Society are to have a chicken pie supper, with other eatables in abundance, at the town hall, Tuesday evening, Oct. 8th, for 25 cents.  They are willing to work and deprive themselves of many of the comforts of life to restore the lost temple.”[13]

After consulting with J.P. Johnston, a local architect from Ogdensburg, it was decided to use the stone from the old church for only a short way above the ground.  The rest of the church would be wooden framed. “A large stone in the center of the Church foundation under the memorial window was saved from the fire. It once rested on the keystone of the arch over the door of the old stone church. On it was engraved the name of the Church, date of building, etc.  When that stone was taken down from the old Church there was found under it a cavity in which was a Bible, some church records and a clay pipe with a foreign trade mark.”[14]  Rev. F.A. Hatch was to be congratulated for “his zeal and faithfulness in the midst of many difficulties and discouragements”[15] by the people in Madrid and was a great part in their completing the beautiful church.

It is interesting to note that seats were assigned to the congregational members at that time.  After much discussion, Deacon H.D. Raymond was chosen to draw the names of parishioners and they would then chose their seat.  A motion was made “that the seats as selected today be retained by the occupants until such time as the Church and Society deem it best to make a change.”[16]

The dedication of the church was a full day affair.  During the early service, congratulations were given all around.  The building committee, consisting of Dr. Brewer, Cornelius Foote and James Fisher, Jr. handed the keys for the new building to H.D. Raymond, chairman of the Board of Trustees.  Several speeches were given and the congregation joined together in being “publicly united in devoting themselves and property to Christian work and worship.”[17]  “The evening services were opened by music from the choir rendered in excellent style, after which devotional exercises were conducted by the pastor.”[18]  At the end of the evening the strawberry social was held.

The new church was 40’x40’, with a Sabbath school addition, 30’x36’. “In the audience room, the floor is bowlshape, ceiled in birch and finished in ash.  The pulpit is on the side, having the choir gallery in its rear, and that opening into the Sunday school room by sliding door.  The seats, which are circular, will accommodate 275, but fifty more can be seated in chairs, and seventy-five in the Sunday school room which, when thrown-open, gives a total capacity of 400.“[19]   The ceiling in the sanctuary is in the shape of an inverted boat, the heavy ribs indicating Noah’s Ark.

“The pulpit furniture is of antique oak and is in harmony with the finish of the interior, upholstered in old gold plush, as the seats are cushioned in the same color of damask.”[20]  “There are 12 stained glass memorial windows which have been contributed by friends whose memories are still vivid to the present generation.”[21]   They are “Deacon Lyman Powell, Samuel Barlow, Ivers Fisk, Anson Hall, Hiram Packard and Philander Hallock, John and Hiram Horton, Mrs. Douglass, Mrs. Pierce, Mrs. Winchester, Mrs. Jane Shillinglaw and Mr. and Mrs. Cyprian Powell.”[22]  Over the entry door is a window which states “First Congregational Church, Erected 1825, Rebuilt 1890.”  It was one of the handsomest churches in the county according to an article in the Massena Observer in 1901.  A new bell from the Baltimore Bell and Brass Works was placed in the tower.

As early as 1891, it was suggested that the congregation dispose of the separate parsonage property and build a new home on the church lot. Rev. George Hancock was instrumental in the construction of a new parsonage.  The old Congregational parsonage which was further down Main Street was sold to Freeman Bradly of West Potsdam.  “The society will have a new parsonage on the lot adjoining the church the coming summer”,  according to the Ogdensburg Journal.  “John Boyle has lately drawn a lot of building stone to the Congregational church lot for a foundation and cellar for the church parsonage”.[23]  Shortly after that it was announced in the paper that the mason work on the cellar of the Congregational parsonage is completed and is now ready for the building in June of 1896.  The building was under the able hand of Andrew Rutherford according to the Norwood News, August 25, 1896.

April of 1898 saw the call go out to Rev. Charles W. Hardendorf of Albany. Within a  month Rev. Hardendorf had celebrated funerals for two of Madrid’s young men.  Mr. Will Hepburn, a well-liked young man, who died of typhoid feverat the age of 21.  His funeral was attended by A. Barton Hepburn and Sen. James Pierce. And then “ Rev. C.W. Hardendorf went to Chattanooga, Tenn., to secure and bring to Madrid the remains of Kenneth Constine, son of Mr. and Mrs. Lester Constine. Kenneth was a soldier boy who sickened and died at Chickamauga camp and was buried in the soldiers’ cemetery at Chattanooga.”[24]  Kenneth had died during the Civil War. He had previously been listed as missing.

Rev. Hardendorf was a frequent speaker of the WTCU according to local newspapers.  In December of 1903, he discovered a fire in the basement of the church which was put out with little damage expect for the smoke.  “Rev. Hardendorf opened the door the smoke poured out of the church, and he immediately gave the alarm. Upon investigating the fire was found to be in one of the cold air boxes, which seemed strange as the draft was not turned in the right direction.”[25]

But in January of 1904 it was reported that “Rev. C. W. Hardendorf and family left Tuesday for East Rockaway, Long Island, when he goes to assume the pastorate of the Congregational church.  Rev. Hardendorf has been pastor of the Congregational church at Madrid for the past four years.”[26]   News of his passing many years later made the local papers – “Rev. Charles W.  Hardendorf, well known in Massena and Louisville, died at Blooming Grove, N. Y., October, 1920, after an illness of several months … Rev. Hardendorf was pastor of the Congregational church at Blooming Grove, having come there from Cleveland, Ohio. He was buried at his request, at Washingtonville, NY, a small village near Albany. 38 years ago Mr. Hardendorf was pastor of a church in Louisville, where his first wife died. Later he married Miss Eva Matthews, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. James Matthews, of Louisville Landing. She died in August, 1916, and later he married Miss Laura Bell of New York city. He is survived by two sons and one daughter by his first marriage and one son by the second marriage.”[27]

Rev. Harry Handy started his tenure June 26, 1904. Rev. Handy and his wife worked with the Boys and Girls Club.  Mrs. Handy was influential with the Ladies Missionary Society growing its membership and its work in the missionary field.  During his pastorate the church saw a new furnace, eave spouts, electric lights (Wm. Alguire of Massena is in town wiring the Congregational Church building for electric lights.)[28], grading of the lawn, a system of concrete walks and a kitchen. Mr. Handy also celebrated the Centennial of the church in 1907.  It was a two day affair according to the Madrid Herald.  It started on Friday, February 21 at 2 pm with an afternoon service, broke for a dinner and then concluded Friday evening.  The festivities concluded on Sunday morning at regular worship.  Upon his leaving, a wonderful article was published in the Madrid Herald. Rev. Handy “has shown himself diligent in Christian service, fervent in spirit, always maintaining the unsullied dignity and honor of his profession.

During his pastorate 49 have been added to the Church membership, 25 by letter and 24 on confession of faith. Also, under Mrs. Handy’s zeal, the Ladies Missionary Society has grown to an unprecedented state of usefulness, both in promoting an interest in mission and also in the noble work of liberal giving. Rev. and Mrs. Handy also have labored with remarkable devotion to the Boys and Girls Club, believing with Horace Mann, that, one former is worth a hundred re-formers when a thing is growing. In this Club they have given the young folk a rare good time prompting sociability under the very best auspices and they also have taught them interest in general Christian work. In the prayermeeting Rev. Handy has conducted a course of Bible study, following the International Sundayschool Lessons. Being a careful student, his course was analytical and historical, and the prayermeetings have been rich opportunities for candid Bible study.  In his preaching Rev. Handy reveals a vigorous mind well stored. Very progressive in doctrine, he still holds tenaciously to the old high standards of faith and obedience, believing that a Christian profession is consistent only as it works out in zealous, untiring devotion to the holy cause, but the more especially to its spiritual phases. In striving for this ideal he hews closely to the line in reproof and exhortation—and he lives the religion he preaches. He believes that the Church is both duty and honor-bound to support missions and urges warmly in their behalf.  The sum of $273 was raised last year for the Society’s benevolences.

During his pastorate the temporal affairs also have prospered finely. The changed furnace, the eaves spouts, the electric lights, the grading of the lawn, the splendid system of concrete walks and the church kitchen — aggregating over a thousand dollars—have been added to the Church property, the Ladies Aid, by the way, paying for two-thirds of it, or more.”[29]

Rev. Edgar T. Clements was the next minister and was married to Miss Pearl H. Purdy,  just before being sent to serve the Congregation in Madrid.  Mr. Clements was a well-liked young man. He and his wife were active with the youth of the community, working with the local thespian group, the campfire girls and the YMCA. Mr. Clements officiated at the funeral of Mary (Mrs.Cyprian) Powell in 1916. She was ninety-nine years old. Rev. Clements was active with the Women’s Suffrage movement. In an editorial published in the Ogdensburg newspaper in 1917 he wrote “New occasions teach new duties. New developments of life call for reconstruction both of ideas and methods.  A woman’s first duty is certainly to her home; but so radically has life changed in a few generations that in order to discharge that duty today a woman must go out and exert her power and influence in those civic and political spheres whose activity hear so directly upon her home. When government, by its rules and regulations, is touching the home more and more closely no woman can fulfill her duty to her home unless she has a voice in the making of the regulations that affect her home so vitally.”[30]  And in May of 1917, the Congregational Church hosted the annual institute of the St. Lawrence County WTCU. He served the congregation until January of 1919.

Rev. Isaac Steenson came to Madrid in July of 1919 and was very active with the Boy Scouts. In 1920 it was noted that “the obligations and right hand of fellowship were given each member of the Scouts by Rev. Steenson, Scout Master and thus the boys were formally initiated as Boy Scouts.”[31]

Mr. Steenson stands very highly, not only in his own church, but in the community at large. He is generally recognized as a very brilliant and forceful preacher, and a thorough Christian gentleman.[32]  In 1922, a meeting was convened in the city of Ogdensburg to educate Sunday school teachers in the county.  The meeting included  Presbyterians, Baptists, Methodists and Congregationalists.  Rev. Steenson was among the presenters.  In one of his sermons, published in the Madrid Herald, Rev. Steenson stated that “the greatest menace” to society is “selfishness and love of ease. For it is these that are the cause of the others”.

The Rev. Arthur Hopper came to Madrid via Hatley, Quebec, April 1, 1925.  During that summer, “a new cement floor was put in the basement and also the cellar dug out under the main part of the church.  The interior was redecorated and a new linoleum was laid on the floor.  The exterior was also painted and some of the windows were repaired.”[33]

In November of 1925, the centennial of the building of the first church being erected was celebrated. “The 100th anniversary of the building of the Congregational church was observed Sunday. The church was decorated with ferns and cut flowers. The dates 1825 and 1925 in gilt on green, were on either side of the pulpit underneath 1825 was a picture of the stone church which was erected in that year. This was destroyed by fire and the present building erected in 1890. A picture of this building hung beneath 1925. At the morning service, Dr. W. H. Boiling state superintendent of the Congregational churches, preached the sermon to a large and appreciative audience.”[34] On January 1, 1928, Frank Powell presented a “picture to the society in memory of his father and mother.”[35]  Mr. Powell was the son of Frederick Powell and the grandson of Cyprian Powell.  The picture he gave to the congregation was of the Old Stone Church which was used during the Centennial celebration in1925.  Also in 1928, a communion cup from the Stone Church was returned by Henry S. Wright.  Rev. Hopper tendered his resignation November 25, 1928.

On June 1, 1929, Rev. William H. Seyfert became the pastor.  The Rev. William Hayes Seyfert penned a series of essays that were published locally in the Ogdensburg Journal.  One in particular, makes sense even to today’s society.  Entitled “Wanted – The Unafraid Man”, it queried “Wanted a man who will not lose his individuality in a crowd, and who has the courage of his convictions, who is not afraid to say “no,” although the rest of the world says “yes.”[36]

While living in Madrid, Mr. and Mrs. Seyfert lost their daughter Grace, 21, to an unknown illness.  Rev. Seyfert had a very successful ministry.  He was active in community enterprises and was a leader in the work of the Boy Scouts.  He left Madrid for Ogdensburg in March of 1934.

Rev. Clarence Macon came from Portland, ME via North Carolina,in May of 1934. He was in Madrid for 3 ½ years. He had two children, Ruth and Clarence, Jr.  During November and December 1936, Rev. Macon was taken ill.  He returned to his duties at the end of December.  During 1936 the church was again painted and the roof on the parsonage was replaced. Rev. Macon stepped down from his pastorate in November of 1937 for a new pastorate in Binghamton, NY.

 “The Rev. Emerson Emke of New York City assumed the pastorate of the Congregational Church here Sunday. He succeeds the Rev. Clarence E. Macon, who resigned to accept the pastorate, of a Binghamton Church, He was greeted by a large congregation and his ordination service will be held, soon as he has not been ordained as yet. He came here from New York where he was assistant pastor of a suburban church. He received his education in Toronto and Union Seminary in New York and Columbia University”[37]  in January of 1938.  Services to ordain Emerson Emke to the Christian ministry were held in the Congregational Church at Madrid Thursday evening, June 30, 1938 at 7 pm.  He used the lawn of church as a playground for children during the summer in 1942 with supervision.  As a pastor during war time, Rev. Emerson Emke, pastor of the Congregational Church, broadcasted over station WSLB at Ogdensburg on the morning devotions.[38]  During his time in Madrid, Pilgrim Hymnals were purchased and dedicated.  Rev. Emke preached his last sermon on November 26, 1944.

Rev. Henry Hughes preached his first sermon in June 1945.  Shortly after he arrived, a new cross was presented to the church and dedicated.  He was in his late sixties when he came to Madrid. Rev. Henry Hughes’ retirement occured January 1, 1949 but he continued to live in the manse and helped out as supply for four Sundays in January,  His death came March 17th.  He was the first minister of Madrid Congregational Church to pass this life in Madrid.[39]  Mr. Hughes was an accomplished writer. He wrote “The Man Without a Church: the Story of James Milbrook” and “Eight Points in Christian Living.”

Rev. Alfred Young came to Madrid from Massena on July 3, 1949.  He served from 1949 to 1953. He was also the interim pastor for Lisbon during this time.  During the years following the discovery of a vaccine to combat polio, the church was used as a site for clinics held by Dr. Livingston in order to insure a central location. Mr. Young also became the pastor at the Lisbon Congregational Church, yoking the two together as one.  After his stay in Madrid, the pastor went to Moravia and later served at the NY Congregational Conference Center in Lisle, N.Y.  During his tenure the church was repainted in 1951 and the parsonage in 1952. In addition, a new Hammond organ was purchased, the church roof repaired, chimes to accompany the new organ, a new oil burner and a Baptismal Font were purchase in 1949.

Rev. Edward G. Nichols came from NYC.   He taught three years in Jaffava, Ceylon, India, and for a number of years was a missionary in India.[40]  He was selected as the new pastor December 5, 1954.  Mr. Nichols celebrated the 150th anniversary of the church in 1957.  It was a 2-day affair.  Later that year, new furnishings were dedicated.  They included a new white pulpit cloth, new choir curtains and upholstery and new seat cushions all given as gifts from bequests by loved ones.  A new amplifier system was installed in 1958.  He continued in Madrid until March 1, 1959, when he accepted a position in Moravia.  It was after his departure that the discussion of yoking the Congregational and Methodists started in earnest.

Rev. T. Howard Ackland came to Norwood and Madrid in 1958.  He served both the Congregational Churches.  As late as December 1961 he served both congregations.  In 1962, Rev. Ackland dedicated the refurbished chapel in the church in memory of Mrs. Fay G. Mann.  Rev. Ackland was the last of the pastors of the Congregational Church before provision was made for a shared pastor.

[1] Ogdensburg Journal, Ogdensburg, NY, Thursday, February 21, 1957, p. 12.

[2] Ibid.

[3] The Madrid Herald, Madrid, NY Thursday, February 28, 1907, Vol. III, No. 41, p. 4.

[4] The Journal, Ogdensburg, NY, August 21, 1878

[5] The Madrid Herald, Madrid, NY, Thursday, February 28, 1907, Vol. III, No. 41, p. 1.

[6] Massena Observer, Massena, NY , Thursday, January 10, 1901, vol. X, no. 7, p. 3.

[7] Madrid Herald, Madrid, NY, Thursday, February 28, 1907, Vol. III, No, 41, p.1.

[8] Ibid.

[9] Herald-Recorder, Potsdam, NY, Friday, April 18, 1930, p. 11.

[10] Ibid.

[11] The Madrid Herald, Madrid, NY, Thursday, February 28, 1907, Vol. III, No. 41, p. 1.

[12] Book of Records of the First Congregational Church of Christ in Madrid,  Volume III, p. 28

[13] The Ogdensburg Journal, Ogdensburg, NY, October 2, 1889, p. 2.

[14] Madrid Herald, Madrid, NY, Thursday, January 21, 1909, Vol. 5, No. 36,  p.1, p. 4

[15] The Ogdensburg Journal, Ogdensburg, NY, Friday, May 16, 1890, p.4.

[16] Book of Records of the Congregational Church of Christ, Vol.III, p.45.

[17] The Norwood News, Norwood, NY, Tuesday, May 20, 1890, Vol. XIII, No. 10, p.4.

[18] Ibid.

[19] The Ogdensburg Journal, Ogdensburg, NY, Friday, May 16, 1890, p.4.

[20] The Ogdensburg Journal, Ogdensburg, NY, Friday, May 16, 1890, p.4

[21] The Norwood News, Norwood, NY, Tuesday, May 20, 1890, Vol. XIII, No. 10, p. 4.

[22] The Ogdensburg Journal, Ogdensburg, NY, Friday, May 16, 1890, p 4.

[23] St. Lawrence Republican and Ogdensburg Weekly Journal, Ogdensburg, NY , Wednesday, April 15, 1896, Vol. 66, No.26, p. 8

[24] The Massena Obsever, Massena, NY, Thursday, September 15, 1898, Vol VII, No. 43, p 1.

[25] Ogdensburg Journal and St. Lawrence Weekly Democrat, Ogdensburg, NY, Thursday, December 10, 1903, Vol.               XXXVIII, No. 50, p. 1.

[26] The Massena Observer, Massena, NY, Tuesday, January 7, 1904, Vol XIII, No.7, p 5.

[27] The Massena Oberver, Masena, NY,Thursday, November 18, 1920, Vol XXX, No. 13, p 5.

[28] The Madrid Herald, Madrid, NY, Thursday, Dec 6, 1906, vol. 3, no 29, p. 4.

[29] The Madrid Herald, Madrid, NY, Thursday, February 27, 1908, Vol IV, No. 41, p 1.

[30]  Ogdensburg Advanced and St. Lawrence weekly Democrat, Ogdensburg, NY, February 2, 1917, p 11.

[31] Potsdam Herald Recorder, Potsdam, NY, Friday, January 30, 1920, vol. XLIII, no. 5, p. 8.

[32] The Ogdensburg Journal, Ogdensburg, NY, Monday, Nov 1,1915, p. 3.

[33] Book of Records of the Congregational Church of Christ, Vol. III, p. 202

[34] The Ogdensburg Republican Journal, Ogdensburg, NY, Wednesday, November 11, 1925, p 3.

[35]  Book of Records of the Congregational Church of Christ, Vol. III, pp. 211- 212

[36] Ogdensburg Republican Journal, Ogdensburg, NY, Saturday, March 8, 1930, p. 3.

[37] Ogdensburg Journal, Ogdensburg, NY, Monday, January 24, 1938, p 5.

[38] Ogdensburg Journal, Ogdensburg, NY, Tuesday, June 17, 1941, p. 2.

[39] Book of Records of the First Congregational Church of Christ, Vol. III, p 359.

[40] Courier-Freeman, Potsdam, NY, December 30, 1954, Vol. 104. No. 35, p. 8.